1.

a. *Students know *how to solve problems that involve
constant speed and average speed.

b. *Students know *that when forces are balanced, no
acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a
constant speed or stays at rest (

c. *Students know *how to apply the law *F *= *ma
*to solve one-dimensional motion problems that involve
constant forces (

d. *Students know *that when one object exerts a force
on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of
equal magnitude and in the opposite direction (

e. *Students know *the relationship between the
universal law of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an
object at the surface of Earth.

f. *Students know *applying a force to an object
perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes the object
to change direction but not speed (e.g., Earth's gravitational
force causes a satellite in a circular orbit to change
direction but not speed).

g. *Students know *circular motion requires the
application of a constant force directed toward the center of
the circle.

h.* *Students know *Newton's laws are not exact but
provide very good approximations unless an object is moving
close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum
effects are important.

i.* *Students know *how to solve two-dimensional
trajectory problems.

j.* *Students know *how to resolve two-dimensional
vectors into their components and calculate the magnitude and
direction of a vector from its components.

k.* *Students know *how to solve two-dimensional
problems involving balanced forces (statics).

l.* *Students know *how to solve problems in circular
motion by using the formula for centripetal acceleration in
the following form: *a *= *v ^{2}/r*.

m.* *Students know *how to solve problems involving the
forces between two electric charges at a distance (Coulomb's
law) or the forces between two masses at a distance (universal
gravitation).

2. The laws of conservation of
energy and momentum provide a way to predict and describe the
movement of objects. As a basis for understanding this
concept:

a. *Students know *how to calculate kinetic energy by
using the formula *E *= *(1/2)mv ^{2}*.

b. *Students know *how to calculate changes in
gravitational potential energy near Earth by using the formula
(change in potential energy) = *mgh* (*h* is the
change in the elevation).

c. *Students know *how to solve problems involving
conservation of energy in simple systems, such as falling
objects.

d. *Students know *how to calculate momentum as the
product *mv. *

e. *Students know *momentum is a separately conserved
quantity different from energy.

f. *Students know *an unbalanced force on an object
produces a change in its momentum.

g. *Students know *how to solve problems involving
elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the
principles of conservation of momentum and energy.

h.* *Students know *how to solve problems involving
conservation of energy in simple systems with various sources
of potential energy, such as capacitors and springs.

3. Energy cannot be created or
destroyed, although in many processes energy is transferred to
the environment as heat. As a basis for understanding this
concept:

a. *Students know *heat flow and work are two forms of
energy transfer between systems.

b. *Students know *that the work done by a heat engine
that is working in a cycle is the difference between the heat
flow into the engine at high temperature and the heat flow out
at a lower temperature (first law of thermodynamics) and that
this is an example of the law of conservation of energy.

c. *Students know *the internal energy of an object
includes the energy of random motion of the object's atoms and
molecules, often referred to as *thermal energy. *The
greater the temperature of the object, the greater the energy
of motion of the atoms and molecules that make up the object.

d. *Students know *that most processes tend to decrease
the order of a system over time and that energy levels are
eventually distributed uniformly.

e. *Students know *that entropy is a quantity that
measures the order or disorder of a system and that this
quantity is larger for a more disordered system.

f.* *Students know *the statement "Entropy tends to
increase" is a law of statistical probability that governs all
closed systems (second law of thermodynamics).

g.* *Students know *how to solve problems involving
heat flow, work, and efficiency in a heat engine and know that
all real engines lose some heat to their surroundings.

4. Waves have characteristic
properties that do not depend on the type of wave. As a basis
for understanding this concept:

a. *Students know *waves carry energy from one place to
another.

b. *Students know *how to identify transverse and
longitudinal waves in mechanical media, such as springs and
ropes, and on the earth (seismic waves).

c. *Students know *how to solve problems involving
wavelength, frequency, and wave speed.

d. *Students know *sound is a longitudinal wave whose
speed depends on the properties of the medium in which it
propagates.

e. *Students know *radio waves, light, and X-rays are
different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic
waves whose speed in a vacuum is approximately 3 x 10^{8}m/s
(186,000 miles/second).

f. *Students know *how to identify the characteristic
properties of waves: interference (beats), diffraction,
refraction, Doppler effect, and polarization.

5. Electric and magnetic
phenomena are related and have many practical
applications. As a basis for understanding this
concept:

a. *Students know *how to predict the voltage or
current in simple direct current (DC) electric circuits
constructed from batteries, wires, resistors, and
capacitors.

b. *Students know *how
to solve problems involving Ohm's law.

c. *Students know *any resistive element in a DC
circuit dissipates energy, which heats the resistor.
Students can calculate the power (rate of energy
dissipation) in any resistive circuit element by using
the formula Power = *IR *(potential difference) x
*I *(current) = *1 ^{2}R*.

d. *Students know *the properties of transistors
and the role of transistors in electric circuits.

e. *Students know *charged particles are sources
of electric fields and are subject to the forces of the
electric fields from other charges.

f. *Students know *magnetic materials and
electric currents (moving electric charges) are sources
of magnetic fields and are subject to forces arising
from the magnetic fields of other sources.

g. *Students know *how to determine the direction
of a magnetic field produced by a current flowing in a
straight wire or in a coil.

h. *Students know *changing magnetic fields
produce electric fields, thereby inducing currents in
nearby conductors.

i. *Students know *plasmas, the fourth state of
matter, contain ions or free electrons or both and
conduct electricity.

j.* *Students know *electric and magnetic fields
contain energy and act as vector force fields.

k.* *Students know *the force on a charged
particle in an electric field is *qE, *where *E*
is the electric field at the position of the particle
and *q *is the charge of the particle.

l.* *Students know *how to calculate the electric
field resulting from a point charge.

m.* *Students know *static electric fields have as
their source some arrangement of electric charges.

n.* *Students know *the magnitude of the force on a
moving particle (with charge *q) *in a magnetic field
is *qvB *sin(*a), *where *a *is the
angle between *v *and *B *(v and *B *are
the magnitudes of vectors *v *and *B, *respectively),
and students use the right-hand rule to find the direction
of this force.

o.* *Students know *how to apply the concepts of
electrical and gravitational potential energy to solve
problems involving conservation of energy.